World History And Anthropology: 20+ interesting photos of africans in antiquity 5 The Ancient Greeks were black, world history and anthropology ~~~~

Tuesday, 18 February 2014

20+ interesting photos of africans in antiquity 5

Modern dna evidence supports black ancient greece and grand kushtu (basically a giant black empire originating in several tribes from modern sudan down to tanzania including kenya who spread out and created an empire spanning most of the ancient world for those who want the cliff notes version)

Phylogeographic analysis of haplogroup E3b (E-M215) y chromosomes reveals multiple migratory events within and out of Africa.
Cruciani F, La Fratta R, Santolamazza P, Sellitto D, Pascone R, Moral P, Watson E, Guida V, Colomb EB, Zaharova B, Lavinha J, Vona G, Aman R, Cali F, Akar N, Richards M, Torroni A, Novelletto A, Scozzari R.
Dipartimento di Genetica e Biologia Molecolare, Universita "La Sapienza," 00185 Rome, Italy.
Although E-M78β and E-M78γ show only modest levels of gene flow (from northern Africa to Europe and from eastern to northern Africa, respectively), the clinal frequency distribution of E-M78α within Europe testifies to important dispersal(s), most likely Neolithic or post-Neolithic. These took place from the Balkans, where the highest frequencies are observed, in all directions, as far as Iberia to the west and, most likely, also to Turkey to the southeast. Thus, it appears that, in Europe, the overall frequency pattern of the haplogroup E-M78, the most frequent E3b haplogroup in this region, is mostly contributed by a new molecular type that distinguishes it from the aboriginal E3b chromosomes from the Near East. These data are hard to reconcile with the hypothesis of a uniform spread of a single Near Eastern gene pool into southeastern Europe. On the other hand, they might be consistent with either a small-scale leapfrog migration from Anatolia into southeastern Europe at the beginning of the Neolithic or with an expansion of indigenous people in southeastern Europe in response to the arrival of the Neolithic cultural package. At the present level of phylogenetic resolution, it is difficult to distinguish between these possibilities.
e-m78 occurs highest in the borana from kenya at 78%. The peer reviewed document makes it clear that e-m78 went from northern africa into europe and from eastern africa into northern africa. In otherwords, people from east africa moved north to north africa and then into europe (the only way you can pretty much most obvious way to get to europe from east africa by land. The neolithic or post neolithic makes is clear that around the neolithic and post neolithic age or bronze age ie. when ancient greece was just starting black africans from east africa arriving into greece. This shuts down the no blacks in ancient greece but slaves. These people were clearly the founders who had been arriving from the neolithic and post neolithic era and spread all over europe and turkey.

Dna studies make it clear the ancient greeks were indeed black

E3b—that is, it had (1) the highest number of different E3b clades (table 1), (2) a high frequency of this haplogroup and a high microsatellite diversity, and, finally, (3) the exclusive presence of the undifferentiated E3b* paragroup.

Our data show that haplogroup E3b appears as a collection of subclades with very different evolutionary histories. Haplogroup E-M78 was observed over a wide area, including eastern (21.5%) and northern (18.5%) Africa, the Near East (5.8%), and Europe (7.2%), where it represents by far the most common E3b subhaplogroup. The high frequency of this clade (table 1) and its high microsatellite diversity suggest that it originated in eastern Africa, 23.2 ky ago (95% CI 21.1–25.4 ky)
Translation e1b1b or e3b (same thing different names) originates in east africa

The relatively high frequency of DYS413 24/23 haplogroup E chromosomes in Greece (A.N., unpublished data) suggests that cluster α of the E-M78 haplogroup is common in the Aegean area, too.
Greeks particularly in the Aegean have dna originating in africa. They were never involved in the african slave trade.

The cluster E-M78γ was found in eastern Africa at an average frequency of 17.7%, with the highest frequencies in the three Cushitic-speaking groups: the Borana from Kenya (71.4%), the Oromo from Ethiopia (32.0%), and the Somali (52.2%).
Probably why they excluded these groups and did not look at y-dna when testing the dna of the minoans.

In conclusion, we detected the signatures of several distinct processes of migration and/or recurrent gene flow associated with the dispersal of haplogroup E3b lineages. Early events involved the dispersal of E-M78δ chromosomes from eastern Africa into and out of Africa, as well as the introduction of the E-M34 subclade into Africa from the Near East. Later events involved short-range migrations within Africa (E-M78γ and E-V6) and from northern Africa into Europe (E-M81 and E-M78β), as well as an important range expansion from the Balkans to western and southern-central Europe (E-M78α). This latter expansion was the main contributor to the present distribution of E3b chromosomes in Europe.
In otherwords, European E is of african origin (like all E) and represent black african migration into europe going back to the neolithic period and post neolithic period.

The two E-M78 chromosomes found in Pakistan, at the eastern borders of the area of dispersal of haplogroup E3b, also belong to cluster δ. On the basis of these data, we suggest that cluster δ was involved in a first dispersal or dispersals of E-M78 chromosomes from eastern Africa into northern Africa and the Near East. Time-of-divergence estimates for E-M78δ chromosomes suggest a relatively great antiquity (14.7±2.7 ky) for the separation of eastern Africans from the other populations. A later range expansion from the Near East or, possibly, from northern Africa would have introduced E-M78 cluster δ into Europe. However, given the low frequencies of E-M78δ, it seems to have contributed only marginally to the shaping of the present E-M78 frequency distribution in Africa and western Eurasia. Indeed, later (and previously undetected) demographic population expansions involving clusters α in Europe (TMRCA 7.8 ky; 95% CI 6.3–9.2 ky), β in northwestern Africa (5.2 ky; 95% CI 3.2–7.5 ky), and γ in eastern Africa (9.6 ky; 95% CI 7.2–12.9 ky) should be considered the main contributors to the relatively high frequency of haplogroup E-M78 in the surveyed area.
Yeah previously "undetected" is code for white people through out the results when it proved blacks were in Europe 6300 - 9200 years ago or 4300-7200 bc, black east africans from kenya with the e-m78 haplogroup showed up in europe so they through away the results and claimed it was undetected.

E3b1-M78 is the most common haplogroup E lineage in Europe (Cruciani et al. 2004; Semino et al. 2004). The spatial pattern shown in figure 4(C) depicts a nonuniform E3b1 geographic distribution with a frequency peak centered in south Europe and SEE (13%–16% in southern Italians and 17%–27% in the Balkans). Declining frequencies are evident toward western (10% in northern and central Italians), central, and eastern Europe (from 4% to 10% in Polish, Russians, mainland Croatians, Ukrainians, Hungarians, Herzegovinians, and Bosnians). Noteworthy is a low E3b1 frequency (5%) in Turkey. Apart from its presence in Europe and the Middle East, E3b1 is also found in eastern and northern Africa. Cruciani et al. (2004) estimated that E3b-M78 might have originated in eastern Africa about 23.2 KYA (95% confidence interval [CI] 21.1–25.4).

High-Resolution Phylogenetic Analysis of Southeastern Europe Traces Major Episodes of Paternal Gene Flow Among Slavic Populations

Marijana Peričić*, 1 , Lovorka Barać Lauc*, 1 , Irena Martinović Klarić*, Siiri Rootsi†, Branka Janićijević*, Igor Rudan‡§, Rifet Terzić∥, Ivanka Čolak¶, Ante Kvesić¶, Dan Popović*, Ana Šijački#, Ibrahim Behluli**, Dobrivoje Đorđevi憆, Ljudmila Efremovska††, Đorđe D. Bajec#, Branislav D. Stefanović#, Richard Villems† and Pavao Rudan*

So, do the eurocentricks want to explain why they have a haplogroup originating in Africa 23,000 years ago at 27% in places where black people supposedly never were?

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